Gum disease (Gingivitis and Periodontitis)
Gum disease is a very common cause of tooth loss in adults. Plaque and tartar build up on the teeth cause inflammation, and subsequent damage to gums and bone that support the teeth. If left alone, gum disease will cause bad breath, loosening of teeth, infection, and chronic gum pain.
Treatment of gum disease can stop the disease from worsening, and in some cases, reverse the damage helping to preserve the teeth for longer.
Risk factor for Gingivitis and Periodontitis:
- Poor dental hygiene
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Pregnancy (hormonal changes increase the sensitivity of the gums)
- Misaligned teeth, rough edges of fillings, and ill-fitting or unclean mouth appliances (such as braces, dentures, bridges, and crowns)
- Use of certain medications, including phenytoin, bismuth, and some birth control pills
- Many people have some amount of gingivitis. It usually develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes. It may persist or recur frequently, depending on the health of your teeth and gums.
- Immunocompromised patients
Symptoms of Gingivitis and Periodontitis
- Bleeding gums (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing of the teeth)
- Mouth sores
- Red, swollen or tender gums
- Gums that have pulled away from the teeth
- Bad breath that doesn’t go away
- Pus between teeth and gums
- Loose teeth
Treatment for Gingivitis and Periodontitis
Gum disease is treated in phases according to the severity.
- Initial cleaning, scaling, and curettage
- Surgery — if needed for reducing deep pockets that remain underneath the gum after extensive cleaning sessions
- Low-dose oral or topical antibiotics
- Maintenance is done by getting regular check-up and clean done by dentist in every 3-6 months.
- Smoking cessation
- Change of medication if its drug induced